The Kindergarten Arabic program focuses on building a foundation for emerging readers, writers as well as basic literacy skills. In reading, children learn letter names and sounds, are introduced to basic vowel sounds (tashkeel), and practice reading phonetic word patterns. They also build an oral vocabulary of familiar and commonly used words about common themes, such as the weather, days of the week, numbers, colors and shapes. In writing, children practice the directionality and basic lines of the Arabic language, practice writing their name, as well as all the letters in their isolated and initial connected form (i.e. at the beginning of a word). Writing also includes simple draw-and-write journals using drawings, words and dictation to express ideas in Arabic. Some children are able to write sentences by the end of Kindergarten. The reading and writing activities are integrated into literacy activities using songs and story time.